Suicide has become a major cause of death in rapidly changing times. Before we try to understand the psychology of suicide, it is important to know what can be called suicide. The answer has been given by psychologist Edwin Schneidman, and he is considered the most influential scientist to conduct research in this area.
Edwin Schneidman defines suicide as an intentional death, i.e., it is a self-induced death in which a person makes an intentional, direct, or conscious attempt to end his life.
There are four types of people who deliberately end their lives or try to kill them intentionally. These are
- death seeker
- death initiator
- death ignorer
- Death Darer
Death seekers are those people who have a clear desire to end their life while committing suicide. There is no doubt in his mind about it. There was only one desire in his mind to end his life. But the duration of this desire is very short. After a few hours or the next day, this desire changes and mixes with other desires.
Many psychologists believe that people who use deadly tools to end their lives have a strong desire to do so. Therefore, such people are kept in the category of death seekers.
The person who initiates death also has a clear desire to put an end to his life, but at the same time, he also believes that death is bound to happen, but they only want to intensify it. so that they will soon surrender themselves to death. Such a belief is established in most old people. Hence, these people are kept in this category of suicides.
A person who ignores death is a person who believes that suicide does not end his existence, but he gets a new life in which he can be comparatively more happy. I will get Most of the suicides that are committed in childhood or by people influenced by religious instincts are considered suicides in this category.
In the category of people facing death , such people have been kept who attempt suicide and are firm in their intentions. In other words, if others feel that they want to commit suicide but they do not want to do it with their mind, as if a person walks on the edge of the roof of a high building, then there is a clear gap in their desire. It has become clear in research that people facing death are such people who draw the attention of others to themselves. They keep trying to create a feeling of guilt in others or show their anger by trying to get someone to die.
Some facts and some misconceptions about suicide.
Many important facts have come to the fore in the research done in the field of suicide, as well as some misconceptions have also come to the fore about which you all need to know.
Facts about suicide
(1) The rate of suicide is determined on the basis of suicides committed per one lakh people, which varies from country to country. According to the World Health Organization , it is highest in some countries such as Hungary, Germany, Austria, Denmark, Finland, Belgium, Switzerland, France, and Japan (i.e., from 22 to 45 per 100,000). But other countries like Italy, Ireland, Peru, Egypt, etc. have the lowest, i.e., 1 to 2 suicides per one lakh people. In the US and Canada, this rate is in the middle, i.e., 12 to 13 suicides per one lakh people.
(2) Half of those who commit suicide are those who have tried once before, but about two thirds of those who attempt suicide are those who do not try again.
(3). The suicide rate is generally three times higher in women than in men.
(4) Women who are widowed or divorced are more likely to commit suicide.
(5) Suicidal ideation can occur in both elderly and young people.In other words, it also occurs in people above the age of 75 and below the age of 14.
Suicide occurs in people of all socioeconomic backgrounds.
(7) There is no death other than that by suicide, which creates permanent sorrow, guilt and disturbances among friends and relatives.
(8) The rate of suicide is increasing day by day in children and adolescents.
(9) Suicide rates are higher during depressive years.
There are also some misconceptions about suicide, which are as follows:
- People who discuss suicide won’t actually do it.
- Suicide is committed without warning.
- Only certain types of people commit suicide.
- Merely being a member of a religious group does not mean that a person will commit suicide.
- The motivation for suicide is easily identifiable.
- All those who commit suicide are victims of depression.
- A person who suffers from a death-worthy physical illness should not commit suicide.
- Suicide is madness.
- The tendency to commit suicide is innate.
- Suicide is affected by the particular day of the week, the weather, atmospheric pressure, etc.
- Suicide is influenced by cosmic factors such as the positions of the Moon or the Sun (i.e., morning, noon, evening) etc.
- When the emotional state is advanced, the person does not commit suicide.
- People who commit suicide clearly want to die.
- There are very few thoughts about suicide.
- When a depressed person is asked about suicide, he will be ready to commit suicide.
Friends, if there is a suicidal tendency in your friends, family, or anyone nearby, then definitely show it to a psychiatrist near you so that by understanding the cause of the problem properly, its proper treatment or solution can be found before it is too late. We all need to spread awareness about mental health so that a healthy society can be built. Always remember that life is precious. Face the difficulties and do not give up.
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